Categories: Article

by Aki Panagos


The IncludeME project’s focus on the integration of young refugees and migrants with limited schooling is particularly relevant given the array of challenges these individuals face upon arrival in Europe. The difficulties are multifaceted, encompassing educational, socio-emotional, and vocational aspects, all of which are compounded by the low education levels of many of these young individuals.

Educationally, young refugees and migrants often encounter school systems ill-prepared to address their unique needs. For instance, the German dual system of vocational training, despite its effectiveness in facilitating transitions from school to work, may not fully cater to those with low educational backgrounds. The Dutch system, while offering ‘repair mechanisms’ to aid immigrant children’s education, still sees many falling through the cracks due to a delicate balance between benefiting from system permeability and the risk of dropping out at lower educational tracks. These nuances underline the need for early educational interventions and strategies to mitigate school segregation and support multilingual and intercultural competences​​ (source:


The sheer scale of immigration, including a significant number of young individuals, has placed unprecedented demands on European education systems. This influx has exposed and intensified existing system weaknesses, highlighting the urgent need for enhanced teacher capacity to address the diverse needs of these young newcomers. The shortage of teachers, particularly for those specializing in language and socioemotional support, further complicates the situation​​ (Source:

Societally, various EU nations have developed innovative approaches to facilitate the social and vocational integration of young refugees. France’s Youth Guarantee scheme offers financial aid and training to young people in precarious conditions, aiming to support their educational and professional integration. However, access to such programs can be limited for young refugees. In Greece, programs like Curing the Limbo provide language classes and career counselling, essential for integrating into the local job market and society. Germany’s initiatives like SchlüsselBund demonstrate the power of community engagement in supporting young refugees towards independent living through housing sponsorships and advisory services​​ (source:

The challenges in vocational education and training (VET) are equally significant. Migrant students are less likely to succeed in completing upper-secondary VET programs compared to their native peers, with dropout rates notably higher among foreign-born apprentices in certain countries. This discrepancy highlights the need for personalized support and modifications in the standard duration of apprenticeship to cater to the diverse backgrounds of students​​ (source:

While European school systems generally afford migrant children the same educational rights as native students, disparities still exist, particularly for irregular migrants and those over compulsory school age who haven’t completed their education. The need for language and psycho-social support is often met with inadequate resources, and while many systems make efforts to integrate migrant students, the lack of a cohesive, top-level strategy for migrant student integration is evident in most European education systems​​ (source:

These educational, social, and vocational challenges underscore the crucial role of initiatives like the IncludeME project. Providing youth workers with the skills and resources to effectively support these young individuals is imperative. Not only does this aid in the personal development and integration of the youth, but it also enriches the host countries, fostering a more inclusive, diverse, and vibrant society. As highlighted by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, addressing transitional phases in the lives of young refugees, improving access to vocational training and education, and ensuring comprehensive support from professionals are key steps towards preventing a ‘lost generation’ and ensuring the successful integration of these young individuals into society​​ (

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